If you or someone you love has an addiction or are seeking addiction treatment in Calgary for an alcohol use disorder or drug use disorder, we can help. The following page provides some general information about alcohol and drug use disorders to help you get started, but please feel free to contact us for further information at the phone number above if you have questions or would like to book an appointment.
There are many misconceptions about what an addiction is. First, let
me say a few things about what it is not. Common misconceptions about
addiction can be found in the type of statements that people say to make
the case that they are not addicted. These include: "I don't consume
alcohol or use illicit drugs every day." "I can--and do--stop using for
periods of time." "I don't use or drink alone." "My drinking or using
patterns are no different from that of my friends." "I'm not hiding it. I
only drink on social occasions."
In my experience as an
addictions counsellor, I have heard all of these
statements used at one point or another to rationalize drinking or using
patterns that are, in fact, problematic. Addiction is not defined by
how frequently one uses, how much one uses at a time, how much one uses
overall, when one uses, or who one uses with. More correctly, none of
these factors, by themselves, are indicators of an addiction, although
all of them are, in fact, taken into consideration when looking at the
So, then, what is an addiction? One definition of addiction, is as follows:
A Definition of Addiction
A long-term pattern of repeated use of a substance in such a manner as to cause or exacerbate harmful consequences in any domain of one's life - physical, emotional, relational, legal, spiritual, financial -- and, despite the accumulating negative consequences of using the substance, the person continues to use it.
As you can see, this definition starts to get at the heart of addiction -- repeated use of a substance despite evident and repeated negative consequences.
First, there is an element of repetition. In other words, there has to be a pattern of use that leads to harm. If you go overboard on how much you drink once or twice a year and do something while drinking that you regret later, that, by itself, does not mean you are addicted. But if you've been drinking heavily, or binging, every month, or every two weeks, or weekly, or at some other regular interval for at least the past twelve months, and on many of those occasions you feel guilty about it afterward, or there is damage to your relationship from it, or you end up doing something you regret, then that might be a red flag.
Second, there is an element of harm involved. You and your spouse might fight more destructively when you're drinking, for example. You might experience blackouts. You might miss important obligations because you were drinking or hungover. You might become more aggressive with others. Other harmful consequences include giving up important recreational activities with your family, breaking the trust of one's spouse or partner, not taking care of one's body, feeling guilty and ashamed about one's drinking or using, experiencing legal problems, underperforming at work, or feeling awful, depressed, irritable or anxious the next day.
Third, despite the consequences, you continue to drink or use. Think about it this way. If a person drank socially, and on occasion they consumed too much alcohol and encountered some trouble because of it, they would say, "I'm not doing that again," and they would change something about their behavior so as to prevent further negative consequences of their drinking. And they would most likely be successful.
But someone who is addicted cannot do this, or cannot do this consistently, even when they try. Sooner or later, despite their efforts to control or prevent the harm, they end up consuming too much of the substance again. This happens again and again. Not necessarily every day, and not necessarily every time, but regularly and repeatedly, it happens enough that the harm continues to pile up over time.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, most often referred to as the DSM-V or DSM-5, outlines the criteria that is currently used to diagnose a substance use disorder. There are eleven criteria. You may not meet all of them, but the more of them that are descriptive of your using or drinking patterns, the more severe is the problem you are experiencing with the use of that substance.
The eleven criteria are listed below in bold. I've
included additional questions that you might ask yourself or reflect on
to determine the extent to which you meet each criteria. These are, by
no means, an exhaustive list of questions but they can give you an idea
of what each criteria is looking at.
If you meet two or three of these criteria, that would indicate a mild use disorder; four or five indicate a moderate use disorder and six or more indicate a severe use disorder.
The preceding list of criteria
and related questions is not intended to
provide you with a diagnosis, only to offer education and increased
awareness. A diagnosis is arrived at through a comprehensive assessment
with an addictions professional who can explore your personal, medical, family and work histories, as well as your current mental health
status, relationship quality, and substance use patterns. All of the information gleaned from such an assessment is used together to determine a diagnosis.
Our hope in providing this information, however, is that it helps you gain a better understanding of what an addiction looks like and how it manifests in daily life, so that you can make more informed decisions regarding your well-being.
If you are answering yes to some or most of these types of questions, there is a strong likelihood that you are experiencing a problem with the use of your substance of choice. We strongly recommend that you consult with a health professional, psychologist or other therapist who is trained in the field of addictions assessment and treatment, and who can provide further guidance and recommendations as to what steps you can take to address these issues in a meaningful way.
There are multiple initiatives involved in the effective treatment of an alcohol or drug addiction. The more comprehensive your recovery plan the higher the probability of achieving the goal of sustained sobriety, improved health and functional living.
Typical treatment steps in a comprehensive treatment plan include: (for the following list, an asterisk (*) means that the step is typically necessary or highly recommended; no asterisk means that the step may or may not be required):
Initial detoxification in a controlled medical setting may be a necessary first step, particularly if you have been using heavily and frequently up to the point of abstaining. Detoxification will assist you to safely cope with highly unpleasant and potentially lethal withdrawal symptoms that follow sudden withdrawal of a substance.
groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous or Narcotics Anonymous have been
particularly effective at helping individuals receive the support,
information, and inspiration needed to remain clean and sober. One of the main benefits of AA lies in the mutual support
both given and received in a setting that emphasizes accountability,
honesty, deep personal change instead of behavioral change only, and practical tools for maintaining sobriety. An
important part of twelve-step work is selecting and working with a
sponsor who has sustained sobriety and who can guide you in implementing
prevention counselling can be an essential component of a good
treatment plan. An addictions counsellor will help you plan strategies
for avoiding relapse, better understand your triggers and risk factors
and how to neutralize them, learn to deal with cravings, help you shift
distorted thoughts and beliefs that perpetuate addictive behaviors,
replace addictive behaviors with healthier alternatives, and bring to
light underlying affective, behavioral, cognitive, familial and social
factors that help drive the addictive acting out so that they can be
worked out or worked through. Combining twelve-step support in a group setting alongside relapse prevention counselling with a trained addictions specialist can augment the benefits derived from utilizing either approach alone. Such counselling would typically take place following in-patient or out-patient treatment (it may also begin before rehabilitation if there is a wait time involved).
Enrollment in an in-patient or out-patient rehabilitation program may or may not be necessary. In-patient treatment means that you reside in the treatment facility for the duration of your stay there. Out-patient treatment means that you report in each day for care, but return to your home at night.
In-patient care provides many benefits, including lack of access to substances, separation from addiction-triggering or distracting elements of life, intensive individual and group counselling, education, round-the-clock monitoring, and introduction to twelve-step work.The main advantages of in-patient treatment include lower risk of relapse due to inaccessibility to substances, close monitoring, and intensive education. Disadvantages include the cost and disruption to your work and family life (the latter disadvantage may need to be put in perspective considering the cost of addiction to one's work or family life). The main advantages of out-patient care include generally lower costs and the ability, potentially, to maintain some of your routine.
Generally, if your
living or work environment is not conducive to the goals of recovery; if
your resources for change are minimal, if your supports are minimal, if your addiction is moderate to
severe in intensity, if you have been using heavily for a long time, and/or you have never attended a treatment program
before, you may be a good candidate for in-patient treatment. Treatment
centres typically require that you are five days clean upon entry to the program and that you are
willing to abide by the inpatient center's requirements for recovery to
remain in the program.
If, however, the following conditions
are true, you may not need in-patient or out-patient treatment as part of your
The risks and benefits of attending in-patient or out-patient treatment should be discussed and reviewed with your addictions
specialist to determine a plan that is right for you.
One of our qualified counsellors can work with you in two important ways: 1) to provide a safe and trusting environment to begin to talk about and explore your usage patterns, and 2) identify recommendations and tools for moving forward. Research on the therapeutic components of effective therapy indicates that some of the most important elements—as influential as the specific techniques and tools your therapist uses to treat addiction—include the helping relationship itself that you develop with a caring and trusted professional who will listen to you carefully and provide guidance and support, and an environment that instills hope, or a positive expectancy.
In addition, one of our counselors can help you learn more about the psychological and physical factors involved in addiction; get connected with community resources and in-patient treatment facilities, as needed; develop and implement a relapse prevention plan; receive help in overcoming any other co-occuring social-emotional issues that co-exist with alcohol or drug addiction, and provide an accountability system and support for you in your journey toward healthier living.
by Harry Haroutunian
An excellent resource on understanding treatment of substance addiction. I especially like the chapter on the Twelve Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous. In this chapter, the author describes each Step in detail, including the principles and potential pitfalls of each step, as well as his own simplified version of the meaning of each step. Dr. Haroutunian rewords Step One, for example, "We admitted we were powerless over alcohol -- that our lives had become unmanageable" to "There is a power that wants to kill me." Step Two, "Came to believe that a Power greater than ourselves could restore us to sanity," becomes "There is a Power that wants me to live." Includes a chapter on the high functioning addict, what to expect in recovery, a discussion on abstinence vs. harm reduction, a discussion of the distinction between spirituality and religiosity, a description of AA meetings, and more. A very good introduction to the world of addiction recovery.
by Katherine Ketcham and William F. Asbury
Much of what this book is about could be described by the phrase found on the back cover: "Alcoholism is a disease. It's time we started treating it like one." In the first half of this book, the authors describe the science behind the neurobiology of alcohol addiction, how alcohol affects the brain and the body, along with a comprehensive description of the early, middle and late phases of alcoholism. The second half of the book includes chapters on inpatient treatment, relapse prevention, counselling for co-morbid issues, spirituality and nutrition. It's a bit dated now, but its still very informative and one I would recommend. The author, Katherine Ketchum is also author of Under the Influence, considered a classic in the field.
The following links lead to online resources that may help further:
Official site of Alcoholics Anonymous World Services Inc..
What its Like to Attend Your First Meeting
Here is an excellent online article that addresses one of the most common psychological barriers to attending AA: anxiety about attending your first meeting. This article, produced by professionals at Futures Palm Beach, can help you feel better prepared with an understanding of what to expect at your first and subsequent meeting(s) and helps to dispel some of the common myths about attending AA.
Evolution Health Care for Everyone
An online support group providing help to those who are seeking to quit or cut down on their drinking. One helpful resource on this site is an online questionnaire you can use to evaluate your drinking. This is the same one used by the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (see below). I prefer the final report format on this site, however, as it provides a little more information. An excellent resource with which to evaluate your drinking.
Alcohol Help Center 2.0 Links and Resources
Check Your Drinking Assessment Online Questionnaire
American Society of Addiction Medicine
An excellent educational resource, information rich, written in a strong academic style, outlining what addiction is, including the characteristics, neurobiology and genetic components of addiction. The American Society of Addiction Medicine and its Canadian counterpart the Canadian Society of Addiction Medicine both offer comprehensive online information (see the "Research and Treatment" menu of the navigation bar at asam.org) to both addiction professionals and the public.
Centre for Addiction and Mental Health
Canada's leading addiction and mental health teaching hospital.
CAMH Articles and Resources
Information about Drug and Alcohol Addiction
Evaluate Your Drinking
Information about Alcohol, Other Drugs, and Driving
Low-Risk Drinking Guidelines
Dealing with Drinking: How to Quit or Cut Down
This is another excellent site filled with articles, resources, and information on addiction. It is also a good site to find out about treatment centers available near you.
The Recovery Village provides comprehensive alcohol and drug rehab programs. Their website, here, is a wealth of information on alcohol and drug addiction and treatment, inpatient and outpatient programs, co-occurring disorders, and so much more.
Just call us (403) 255-8577 or use our easy online scheduler here.
If you have any questions or would like to contact us by email, you can complete a brief confidential contact form here. Once you submit the contact form, a Cobb & Associates intake staff member will respond as soon as possible.
The Calgary Couples Counselling Centre (a subsidiary of Cobb & Associates Inc.) is located in southeast Calgary (near Leons and Trail Appliances on 11th Street SE). Please click here for our full address and a map to our location. We are currently accepting new clients and warmly welcome self-referrals and referrals from physicians and other professionals.
We appreciate your interest in our services and hope this information has been helpful to you. Please do not hesitate to call if you have any questions.
Home | Return to Counselling Services
External Content and Diagnosis Disclaimer: Cobb & Associates Inc. gives no direct or implied assurance that the content on an any external websites listed on this page is 100% accurate or credible. This determination must be made by individual consumers of online information. In addition, the information on this page is intended for educational purposes only and is not meant to be used for diagnosis or treatment. If you suspect that you are experiencing the type of difficulties described in this article, we strongly advise that you consult with a health professional.
Affiliate Disclaimer: Some of the links to resources listed on this site are affiliate links, including the resource listed on this page. This means that if you click on a link pointing to a vendor on this page and you subsequently purchase any product from that vendor, Cobb & Associates Inc. will receive a percentage of that sale. Please know that we will only review and recommend products that we feel are of high quality and value to the reader. If any product we find on the internet is not of high quality it will not be reviewed on this site. Cobb & Associates was not offered this product for free in exchange for a review. Affiliate commissions are one method we use to offset marketing costs and are not a significant source of income for Cobb & Associates.